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Basic Mistakes by a Researcher in Research Paper Writing

Research paper writing is definitely not easy. We all commit mistakes in some way or the other. Some of them can be corrected during the time of editing or self-editing. But there are some mistakes that should never be done and should be corrected from the very beginning or else they will bring us mountains of trouble later.

Common Mistakes in Research Paper Writing:

  • Lingering papers. There is generally a page limit when we submit our paper to a conference or journal. Several reviewers will dislike the work if the page limit is dishonored. The reason behind it is that reviewers are busy reviewing many papers and they do not want to spend their time in making it fit within the page limit.
  • Proofreading and illegible papers.  A paper should be written well and the author should proofread it before submission.  In some cases, certain unreadable papers look like they were automatically translated by the help of internet. These papers get rejected for sure.
  • Plagiarized content in the paper.  A paper that contains text copied from another paper minimizes your chance of being accepted. The texts in your papers should be written only by your own Research paper writing style. It is easy on the part of a reviewer to detect plagiarism using various plagiarism detection software.
  • Information those are irrelevant. In some papers, we find information that are irrelevant and of least importance.
  • Stating the research problem.  In a research paper, it is very much important to state the problems that are really important and challenging. The Research paper writing style of the author needs to be modified in order to please the reviewer, by giving a brief description to the problem and the solutions derived from the study.
  • Paragraphs should flow lucidly. It is important that all the parts of the research papers are interconnected by a “flow”. Each and every part must feel logically connected to the next parts when the reviewer reads it.

MISTAKES TO BE AVOIDED

While writing a research paper, there are some traps that students or researchers fall into. Some have been listed below:

  1. Dearth of research before choosing a thesis subject.

Sometimes, out of stress, students rush their selection of subject. As a result of which their focus suffers greatly, and a reflection of this comes in their Research paper writing style. The important steps in writing a successful research statement is first doing a good research and choosing an appropriate subject that they can well connect to. Doing this will ultimately gift you a successful paper.

  1. Dearth of a strong thesis statement.

The next step is creating a strong thesis statement. Importance of research paper writing a clear and focused research statement needs to be understood by the author.. It should be based on a topic that grounds further discussion.

  1. Unable to make proper connections between the research statement and supporting statements.

The structure of a research paper flows from the research statement followed by the supporting statements, which account the body.

  1. Dearth of strong, relevant data.

All supporting statements in a paper should be corroborated by relevant sources which prove the point of view put by the research statement. Your supporting statements should plump out your original thesis statement and have a strong basis.

From the above discussed points, it is clear that research paper writing can be simplified to some extent if we are wise enough. Keeping these points in mind we should proceed towards our research writing. The huddles will definitely be minimized and we can get a successful research work at the end.

How to Write a Review Paper?

Writing a review article is a valuable piece for those who search for summary of various research studies without spending time to find results by themselves. Writing a good review paper always provides its readers with unbiased information. It provides its reader with a clear justification of why the study is valid or not valid.

Objectives of a review article must be to achieve an organization and combination of previous works around the chosen field to speed-up the assimilation of recent knowledge into the existing one. A review article must me clear and accurate. It should also have a good standard of writing.

Let us discuss about some tips on how to write a review paper.

Review PaperReview papers are not original studies and it just assimilates the study outcomes of the studies. A meta-analysis is a type of quantitative review. It collects data from various other studies to conclude its subject. An ideal review always focuses on a theme. The narrative review article is easy to read and understand whereas the systematic review is a detailed literature survey that is done on a selected topic.

Preparation of manuscript is another major part of writing a review article. The length of the journal always varies depending upon the guidelines provided by the author. The most common guideline which almost all journals ask is a specific font and size to be used. The article structure should have a defined structure. The title page must contain a main title. The title length must not be a lengthy one and must be short, precise and crisp. The title should contain the key elements of the subject matter. The length of the abstract should be between 200-250 words and there should be no citations in the abstract. The introduction part should be a discussion of the subject matter and should also address the objective of conducting the review. It is better if it is written in the present tense. The conclusion part must discuss the objective that is discussed in the introduction.

Here are some of the suggestions on how to write a review article. These tips may help you in polishing your writing while writing a review paper.

Understanding the Background of Academic Editing Services

Academic editing, as the name suggests, is not only for the academicians for also for students, institutes, and scientists. Academic editing services does much more than just language editing, in which the contextual flow of the manuscript is maintained and also the logic is strengthened. To gain international accreditation, a research document must meet the international requirements.

Who is an Academic Editor?

Academic editing servicesAcademic editors are highly trained professionals and are highly vetted for their English language editing expertise. They can work on manuscripts belonging to a wide range of subject areas. They understand the idiosyncrasies of academic language. The minimum qualification of an editor is usually a Master’s degree or a PhD in the required subject field.

How academic editing services assist you?

There are 3 major issues detected in academic writing that can be noted as follows:

-Improper presentation of thoughts: Any thesis or research work that is not presented properly, lacks consistency, has lengthy abstract section, non-confirmation to guidelines, incorrect referencing, and so on, can lead to a negative feedback on the research writing, even if the experimental ground is strong.

Academic writing revolves around the clarity of the message that needs to be well presented, so that it can be well understood by the readers.

– Expression: Many research documents have grammatical mistakes throughout, thus resulting in clumsy sentence structures and incorrect tone.

Academic editors are well equipped with skills to spot these errors in your manuscript. When we engage an academic editor, he/she adds sense to the research writing by ensuring proper contextual flow, correct usage of grammar, correct tone, and well presentation of research thoughts. They understand the evidence-based facts, the argumentative statements and the analysis done in the research to prove the stated hypothesis.

The academic writing service brings out the best in your writing by transforming your words into perfection.

All You Need To Know About Manuscript Editing Service

Manuscript editing service is a sort of professional service that aims at making the research draft error free and appealing to the peer reviewers and journal editors. So that they give a green signal to the manuscript at earliest with few or no suggestive changes.

Manuscript Editing ServicesIn such a professional editing service, the subject experts handle the manuscript who have years of experience in the field of study. The native English speakers are hired for editing in English language in a more professional manner. The manuscripts undergoes several round of reviews even if it is edited by an editor before the manuscript is delivered to the journal editor or peer reviewers. Through this, the confidentiality of the author’s work is also maintained and considered as a high priority. ..

What the subject experts really do in manuscript editing service?

  • They correct your grammatical errors and spelling mistakes in the manuscript.
  • They check your tenses and conjunctions.
  • They certify or verify your references.
  • They rewrite or rephrase the texts wherever necessary.
  • They checks the usage of US or UK English and ensures consistency.
  • They replace poor words with better subject specific word choice.
  • All the changes incorporated into the manuscript are done using track changes or highlights. This enables the authors to spot the changes easily and also re-comment on it if they do not agree with the changes.
  • They also maintain the style and consistency.
  • Enhancement of the content is also carried out by the experts.
  • The manuscript is also checked for content’s logical flow, technical accuracy of terminologies, and use of abbreviations. Its declaration at the first instance, and final presentation of the paper.
  • The paper’s structure is checked, i.e. the pattern they follow (for e.g., IMRaD-Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion).

Manuscript submitted for availing such professional editing services is inspected by highly experienced subject experts, those who leave no stone un turned for making your manuscript publication ready. Their expertise not only optimizes the content but also the language.

WITHDRAWAL OF RESEARCH PAPER AFTER SUBMISSION: A BASIC GUIDELINE

Withdrawal of a research paper after submission but before publication and during peer-review or even after acceptance is an uncommon event and not considered as a good scientific practice. Before withdrawing a paper, it should be considered that reviewers and editors have already invested significant time in finalizing of the manuscript.

Once the manuscript submission process is completed, the next step, i.e. initial review of the paper by the Editor followed by peer-review by the invited experts begins. During these steps, the researcher should wait for the final decision. However, in some cases, one may want to withdraw the manuscript. For instance, you may want to revise or add important points or may want to correct some errors which are discovered after manuscript submission. In these case, the manuscript needs to be withdrawn much before the peer-review process starts.

Another common reason to withdraw your manuscript is that authors discover or suspect a glaring error, possibly while checking the proofs. This error may require performing some experiments again or removing existing data set. It may call for doing some supplementary analysis. This may lead to additional work, but it can help the researchers to avoid any future retractions. If the authors do not want to make all research data available for commercial reasons or copyright or when they realize that they have made manuscript submission to a potentially predatory journal, here also authors can withdraw their paper. There are unethical reasons for withdrawal of a paper like being unaware of the publication fees or just wanting to submit one’s manuscript to a higher impact journal.

Another reason for withdrawal of research paper is impatience with peer review process. This process is not a black or white issue. However, there are journals who take a long waiting time for completion of the peer review process. Some complete it within 1-3 months, whereas some take 4-6 months. Even if this is the case, the time period of peer review is mentioned in most of the journal websites. Thus, retraction based on the time period can be unreasonable at times.

In particular, after acceptance of manuscript when the journal and referees have behaved blamelessly, as an author it is hard to justify unilaterally withdrawing the paper. When the paper is submitted, the writer implicitly agrees to publish it there if accepted. A submitted manuscript is a request for publication and not a request for the option to publish. It is not ethical to withdraw a research paper which has been accepted. In the publication process journals, reviewers and editors have spent time. To withdraw a manuscript after it has entered this process is a waste of their time. However, the legal ramifications of this behaviour are probably limited.

 

IMPORTANCE OF SELF-EDITING

 

For an editor or writer who is concerned about getting his manuscripts published, self editing is most important among any other skills.Once the initial draft is written, the author should start correcting his own writing until the manuscript has produced a number of drafts and its final draft looks great.

The research paper should easily depict the intentions of author to his readers very lucidly.Submitting a highly polished and self-edited paper does the following three things:

1)It simplifies the work of the editors or peer reviewers.

2) To estimate better about the paper’s validity.

3)It also fuels the chance of acceptance of the paper for publication.

How to self edit the research paper

After completing a manuscript, a researcher must not hasten to submit it. The researcher should continue further working on it. Get the manuscript published only after all the goals are achieved.

Print the research Paper

It is necessary for a researcher to keep a hard copy of the manuscript all the time. This will help in checking things that varies from what that has been typed on his/her computer. This will help in refreshing the eyes of the researcher and in becoming “detached” from own work. This should be done thoroughly before submission of the manuscript to the target journal.

Take a Break

Take a break for few hours after completing the first draft. The researcher will get to see the paper with fresh opinion when returning to the paper. It will be trouble-free for the writer to spot out his mistakes and sentences with mistakes. Never try to completely revise the research paper at-a-time. Allow yourself to have several days or week to complete it.

Read the Paper Out Loud

It should be soft and pleasant when you read the research paper loud. If you trip over it and something that does not make any sense, mark that immediately and move on. After getting the reading part done,start editing the marked parts and re-read.

Imagine you are the Reviewer

The researcher has to detach himself as the author for effective self editing of the manuscript. He has to play the role of a normal layman who have never read it before.The initial writing part of the manuscript is the easiest part. The original work is to qualitatively improvement in the research paper so that it can transparently communicate the message to the peer reviewers about what the researcher wants. This will be done by the self editing process. Hence, the manuscript should be send out to others for review only after the writer is convinced….

 

APT USE OF COMMAS IN RESEARCH PAPER

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In English language, comma is one of the most useful forms of punctuation as it effectively separates various elements within a sentence according to the writer’s need. Commas are used to break between the ideas in a sentence and make writing easier to read and helps in accurately conveying the meaning of a sentence.

Several rules are followed while using comma like commas are used for separating two or more words, clauses or phrases presented serially or as a list. For e.g.- I ate fruits, toast and eggs. Also, they are used in mid-sentence to present additional information which are not essential to the meaning of a sentence, unduly without disrupting the flow of the sentence. Some of these rules are relatively clear and easier to apply while others could be difficult to understand. For instance, commas are expected to be used by writers, wherever necessary to prevent possible misreading or confusion. Such type of instructions could lead to its inevitable misuse and could be confusing, like adding incorrect placement or unnecessary syntax within a sentence. While using commas in the research paper, unfortunately researchers are too susceptible to committing errors. The key to submitting a manuscript with zero punctuation errors and to avoid such errors is to be aware of them.

There is a great infographics presented which list the top six common errors made by writers while preparing their manuscript.

  1. Comma Splice- A comma splice occurs when two complete sentences are joined with only one comma.
  2. The interrupter rule or parenthetical comma- Any clause, word or phrase that appears in the mid-sentence and which is not essential to the meaning of the sentence must be set off between a pair of commas. One should always remember to use one comma before the word or clause to mark the beginning of the pause and one at the end for indicating the end of the pause.
  3. Serial Comma- It is also known as the Oxford comma. This serial comma is used optionally before the word ‘and’ at the end of a list or a series of phrase or words. When the items in the list are not single words, it helps to clearly convey the meaning of a sentence.
  4. Interchangeable adjectives- Two or more coordinate or interchangeable adjectives that describe the same noun must be separated using commas in a research paper. This type of adjectives equally describe the noun and the sentence would make sense even if the order of the adjectives was reversed or by the word ‘and’ if the adjectives were separated. In the below example, the adjectives ‘quantitative’ and ‘reliable’ equally describe the noun ‘method’.

Example: A quantitative and reliable method for estimating disease incidence is required.

 

Cumulative adjectives – Unlike coordinate adjectives, two or more non-coordinate or cumulative adjectives do not describe the noun equally. Therefore, they must never be separated by a comma.

  1. Introductory phrases or words: These introductory words or phrases are incomplete clauses that contextualize the main action within a sentence. Such types of words or phrases are appearing before the main clause of a sentence and that must be followed by a comma.
  2. Dependent clause at the beginning of a sentence – In this case, with a dependent clause, if a sentence begins then this clause must be followed by a comma. A dependent clause is one that does not make any sense and cannot stand by itself unless it is supported by an independent main clause.

The top six commas related mistakes that are likely to be committed by most of the researchers while preparing the manuscript.

In a research paper, comma helps the reader to figure out which words are used together in a sentence and which parts of the sentences are most important. Incorrect use of commas may confuse the reader, signal ignorance of writing rules or indicate carelessness.

IDENTIFYING PREDATORY CONFERENCES

In scholarly community, all members are well acquainted with the increasing menace of predatory journals and publishers. The predatory conferences are the most recent entries in the league of predators in academic publishing. Now a days, many academicians have been receiving an increasing number of invitations to attend conferences or present conference papers. Many of these conferences are appear to be scholarly, but are in reality an exploitative means used by predatory conference organisers or publishers to make money in the form of registration fees. So early career researchers are an easy target of these fake conferences. Sometimes, the attendees or speakers are subsequently informed about the cancellation of the conference due to some unavoidable reasons, and the registration fees are also not returned. Therefore, in addition to predatory publishers and journals, now researchers also wary of predatory conferences. But whether a conference is fake or legitimate is the question in every researcher’s mind.

To check the reliability of a conference, you can prepare a checklist before registration:

  • Who are the Organizers and Sponsors?
  • Are you aware of the association or the society organizing the conference?
  • Can you identify the conference venue? It is a valid place? Check the Pincode.
  • Are the organizers conducting the conference for the first time?
  • Have you or your colleagues attended this conference previously?
  • Are there any Sponsors involved in the conference?
  • Are you aware of any of them, especially with industry- related fields like Biomedical research and Engineering?
  • What fees will be charged like conference fee, registration fee, etc. Check if you are participating as a Speaker, are they willing to waive off the registration or other fees?
  • Did you check the conference website?
  • Have you read any papers before from this conference proceedings, if published before hand?
  • Can you find all the information like conference date, attendance fees, submission date, program details, editorial committee, and venue at the website?
  • Is there any pre-formed Agenda and Editorial Committee?
  • Do the objective and scope of the conference fit your field and core interest or not?
  • Is the committee clear about the type of peer review and the editorial control over the conference presentations?
  • Are you clear where these papers will be published? Does the conference make it clear to which indexers it will submit to for evaluation and to which indexing services it can guarantee published proceedings?
  • Is the publisher of the proceedings a member of the recognised industry initiative like DOAJ.COPE, OASPA, etc.?

The above questions should be answered by researchers and attend the conference or submit their abstract only if they are satisfied. A check list can be used by researchers and avoid falling prey to bogus conference organizers. The peer review process is not used by the conference organizers in their abstract selection process. This means the acceptance takes place in little as twenty four hour and has a very short turnaround time. Sometimes, the speakers from irrelevant backgrounds may also be invited by the predatory conference organizer. For example, at a plant virology conference a cardiologist keynote speaker might be invited. A clear conclusion can be drawn that the conference organizer does not have interest in the content quality but rather in collecting fees for the conference attendance.

All researchers need to be vigilant while registering for any conference. Just by following some basic guidelines, one can easily spot out the predatory conference.

TYPES OF PEER REVIEW

    

Peer review is a process of subjecting research findings and research methods to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same fields. This process is also integral to scholarly research. Peer review is conducted before publication of the research manuscript. The main purpose is to ensure that whatever comes out published will be virtually free of errors. Different types of peer review models are followed by different journals based on the type of research they publish and their journal management style. The most commonly adopted format are single blind peer review and double blind peer review. Recently another type of peer review process is adopted by some journals, i.e. open peer review and post publication peer review.

Single-blind: In this type, the reviewers are aware of the author’s identity but authors are unaware of who reviewed their research manuscript. There is a possibility that making the author’s identity known could influence the review, while this method serves to reduce chances of bias and conflict of interest.

Double blind: In double blind peer review, both the peer reviewer and the author are not aware of each other’s identity. So here is a risk that sometimes it may allow the reviewers to give irresponsible or inaccurate feedback to the authors.

Open: Identities of both the reviewers and author are known. This method of review also allows the author’s responses as well as peer reviewer comments to be published along with the final manuscript.

Post-publication: To bring back the time of immediate feedback called post publication peer review, recently publishers, entrepreneurs and scientific societies have begun using the web. Although these days most scientific journals are published online, peer review is still most often done according to the publication, and the status of peer review is held as an important hallmark of quality.

The review process is one of the most distinctive features of scholarly publication. While it is not perfect, this is the process used by almost all scholarly publications to identify weak data analysis, filter out bad science and make suggestions for better presentation of research results.

RESEARCH PAPER VS REVIEW ARTICLE

 

 

The research paper is based on original research work. The type of research may vary depending on the topic or field like experiments, questionnaire, survey, interview, etc. However, the author needs to analyse and collect the raw data and conduct an original study. Sometimes research articles are referred to as primary or empirical sources that report on the original research. Review articles are called secondary sources or literature reviews, which analyses or synthesizes research already conducted in primary sources. The current state of research on a given topic can be summarized on this. The existing literature on a topic is generally summarized by review articles, in an attempt to describe the current state of understanding on the topic. Review articles are of three kinds as follows.

  1. Narrative Review: Based on all the published research available on the topic a narrative review explains the existing knowledge on that topic.
  2. Systematic Review: In the existing scientific literature on a topic, a systematic review searches for the answer to a particular question.
  3. Meta-analysis: The findings of previously published studies are compared and combined by meta-analysis, usually to assess the effectiveness of mode of treatment or an interventions.

In a research paper, each step of the research work should be reported in detail. This includes the hypothesis, an abstract, background study, results, methodology and an interpretation of the findings. A discussion of the possible implications of the result should also be included, which shows scope for future research and how the present study can contribute to the existing literature base. On the other hand, the review articles reports and identifies the commonalities between the results of the selected studies in a systematic review. From the published work the authors analyse available information, with a balanced perspective and reports any problems or gaps within the existing literature.

The valuable scientific literature is formed by review papers as the findings of existing literature are summarized by them. So in a particular field without having to read all the published work, readers can build an idea about the existing knowledge on that topic. Review articles are published by most reputed journals, and are most of the time invited. If the review article is published in a good peer review journal then it has a high impact and receives a lot of citations.